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درست نویسی

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orthography (اسم)
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درست نویسی یک زبان، روشی استاندارد را برای نوشتن خط یک زبان، نمایش می دهد. زمانی که بیش از یک خط برای نوشتن یک زبان موجود باشد، مانند زبان کردی، زبان اویغوری، زبان صربی و یا زبان اینوکتیتوت ممکن است چند درست نویسی برای آن زبان موجود باشد. درست نویسی از نقاشی خط متفاوت است.
منابع [ویرایش]
مشارکت کنندگان ویکی پدیا، «Orthography»، ویکی پدیای انگلیسی، دانشنامهٔ آزاد (بازیابی در ۱۲ آوریل ۲۰۱۱).‎
رده های صفحه: زبان شناسی کاربردی زبان
از ویکی پدیا
قس
علم قواعد الکتابة شعبة من شعب علم قواعد اللغة یعتنی أهلها بمجمل قواعد رسم الخط والتسطیر والترقیم المعروفة فی اللغة.
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کتابة القرآن
قواعد النطق
قواعد اللغة
قواعد الخط
خط عربی
علم الخط
تسطیر
تهجئة
إملاء
هذه بذرة مقالة عن اللغویات تحتاج للنمو والتحسین، فساهم فی إثرائها بالمشارکة فی تحریرها.
تصنیف: قواعد الکتابة
قس
An orthography is a standardized system for using a particular writing system (script) to write a particular language. It includes rules of spelling, and may also concern other elements of the written language such as punctuation and capitalization.
Most significant languages in the modern era are written down, and for most such languages a standard orthography has developed, often based on a standard variety of the language, and thus exhibiting less dialect variation than the spoken language. Sometimes there may be variation in a language's orthography, as between American and British spelling in the case of English. If a language uses multiple writing systems, it may have distinct orthographies, as is the case with Kurdish, Uyghur, Serbian, Inuktitut and Turkish. In some cases orthography is regulated by bodies such as language academies, although for many languages (including English) there are no such authorities, and orthography develops through less formal processes.
Orthography is distinct from typography, which is concerned with principles of typesetting.
Contents [show]
[edit]Etymology and meaning
The English word orthography dates from the 15th century. It comes from the French orthographie, from Latin orthographia, which is derived from Greek ὀρθός orthós, "correct", and γράφειν gráphein, "to write".[1]
Orthography is largely concerned with matters of spelling, and in particular the relationship between phonemes and graphemes in a language.[2][3] Other elements that may be considered part of orthography include hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.[4] Orthography thus describes or defines the set of symbols used in writing a language, and the rules about how to use those symbols.
Most natural languages developed as oral languages, and writing systems have usually been crafted or adapted as ways of representing the spoken language. The rules for doing this tend to become standardized for a given language, leading to the development of an orthography that is generally considered "correct". In linguistics the term orthography is often used to refer to any method of writing a language, without judgment as to right and wrong, with a scientific understanding that orthographic standardization exists on a spectrum of strength of convention. The original sense of the word, though, implies a dichotomy of correct and incorrect, and the word is still most often used to refer specifically to a thoroughly standardized, prescriptively correct, way of writing a language. A distinction may be made here between etic and emic viewpoints – the purely descriptive (etic) approach which simply considers any system that is actually used, and the emic view which takes account of language users' perceptions of correctness, which are analogous in some ways to a moral sense of right and wrong.
[edit]Units and notation
Orthographic units, such as letters of an alphabet, are technically called graphemes. These are a type of abstraction, analogous to the phonemes of spoken languages; different physical forms of written symbols are considered to represent the same grapheme if the differences between them are not significant for meaning. For example, different forms of the letter "b" are all considered to represent a single grapheme in the orthography of, say, English.
Graphemes or sequences of them are sometimes placed between angle brackets, as in ⟨b⟩ or ⟨back⟩. This distinguishes them from phonemic transcription, which is placed between slashes (/b/, /bæk/), and from phonetic transcription, which is placed between square brackets ([b], [bæk]).
[edit]Types
The writing systems on which orthographies are based can be divided into a number of types, depending on what type of unit each symbol serves to represent. The principal types are logographic (with symbols representing words or morphemes), syllabic (with symbols representing syllables), and alphabetic (with symbols roughly representing phonemes). Many writing systems combine features of more than one of these types, and a num ...
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